All about Seaweeds!
Seaweed – The Miracle of Human Nutrition
Excellent Seaweed Dance Video!
Kathy Ann Miller – UC Berkeley,California on Seaweed
The University Herbarium boasts more than 200,000 specimens of seaweed, such as this aptly named oakleaf seaweed collected in California sometime in the 1800s. Photo by Sheraz Sadiq / KQED
“Preserving the Forest of the Sea” VIDEO
Published on Feb 5, 2013
The University Herbarium at the University of California – Berkeley boasts one of the largest and oldest collections of seaweed in the United States, dating back to the time of the U.S. Civil War. Kathy Ann Miller, a curator at the herbarium, is leading a massive project to digitize nearly 80,000 specimens of seaweed collected from the west coast of North America. When the project is finished, researchers from around the world will be able to go online and see the digital photographs along with collection information and a map of where the seaweeds were originally collected.
Seaweed, no doubt, outdates man by a considerable period of time. Man has been using seaweed for food and in the growth of plants since his very beginning. Early man, perhaps, cared less why seaweed influenced plant growth. He found them, used them and was happy.
T.L. Senn, Ph.D., Horticulture Department, Clemson University- 1986
Agar: Red seaweeds. The fronds contain a high proportion of gel, which makes them very useful in skin care, herbal medicines and an important ingredient in desserts throughout Asia. (See Carrageen)
Alginate: Brown seaweeds: giant kelp. Alginates are so widely used that more than 10,000 patented applications exist. Examples: water softener, food, beverages to pharmaceutical.
Arame: A species of kelp best known for its use in Japanese cuisine. Rich in calcium, iodine, potassium and iron, Vitamin A and B. Eases menopausal symptoms; treats gynecological disorders, decreases inflammation; treats breast and uterine fibroids, lowers blood pressure and promotes strong bones and teeth.
Biopolymer: Polymers produced by living organisms.
Bladder Wrack: A seaweed found on the coasts of the North Sea, the western Baltic Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Rich in iodine, magnesium, bromine, phosphorus, zinc, iron, potassium, protein, algin, mucilage, mannitol, fucoidan, antioxidants and Vitamin A, C, E, & K. Stimulates immune system, eases inflammation, cleanses kidneys, aids arthritis and painful joints. Used to treat tuberculosis.
Carrageen: A family of linear sulfated polysaccharides that are extracted from red seaweeds (Irish moss). A vegan and vegetarian alternative to gelatin. (See Agar)
Dabberlocks: An edible seaweed that is a traditional food along the coasts of the far north Atlantic Ocean. Also known as badderlocks or winged kelp.
Deep-line Farming: Long line method using multiple rafts in deeper waters, attaches seaweed to anchored lines and floats at the tops.
Dulse: A red seaweed that grows on the northern coasts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. High in protein, boasts the highest content of iron of any food source: contains all essential amino acids; iodine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, manganese and Vitamin A, C, D, & B Complex. Balances the thyroid and adrenal glands; treats viral infections (like herpes); eases sea sickness, prevents hair loss, aids constipation. Used to treat scurvy.
Eucheuma: A type of carageenan known to be low calorie but high in nutrition. It is commonly found in the Philippines, China and Fiji. (See Carrageen)
False Irish Moss: Red seaweed closely related to Irish Moss. It is collected in Ireland and Scotland, together with Irish Moss, dried, and sold for cooking and as the basis for a drink reputed to ward off colds and flu.
Gelidium: Red seaweed known to make agar.
Gim: A Korean-style edible seaweed similar to laver and Japanese-style nori.
Gigartina: Gigartina papillata, is among the species with the highest content of vitamin C; this seaweed is found in the Pacific Ocean. Gigartina mamillosa is European and also has a good content of vitamin C; its synonym is Gigartina stellata, and is a good source of carrageenans.
Hijiki: Brown sea vegetable that grows wild on the rocky coastlines of Japan, Korea, and China. Recent studies from food agencies have found traces of arsenic and advise against consumption.
Ice-ice: A seaweed disease caused by changes in salinity, ocean temperature and light intensity which places stress to seaweeds. The seaweed produces a moist organic substance that attracts bacteria to the water and induces whitening and hardening on the seaweed’s tissues.
Iota Carrageen: A type of carrageen used primarily in fruit applications and requires calcium ions to develop a heat-reversible and flexible gel.
Iridea: Seaweeds which have been used for carrageenan production identified as Iridea. (See: Carrageenan)
Irish Moss: Red seaweed which grows abundantly along the rocky parts of the Atlantic coast of Europe and North America. Rich in protein, iodine, iron, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, copper, sulfur, Vitamin A & antioxidants. Detoxified body tissues; increases metabolism, treats viral and bacterial infections; colds and flu; mumps; eases sore throat and cough, digestive problems; balances blood sugar; decreases inflammation, restores libido, treats bronchitis, thins mucous, treats eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, decreases acne scarring, aids insect bites and skin rashes.
Kappa-Carrageen: A type of carrageen used mostly in breading and batter due to its gelling nature.
Kelp: Kelp has become a widely used term referring to any large Seaweed in the Brown Seaweed family. Common names: Bull kelp, Atlantic kelp, black kelp, bullwhip kelp, ribbon kelp, sea kelp. Herbal remedy: Detoxifies body tissues of heavy metal and radioactive agents; treats thyroid disorders, arthritis and digestive problems; purifies the blood; aids in weight loss; eases lymphatic swellings, treats herpes infections; eases inflammation and neuritis, soothes mucous membranes; reduces side effects of chemotherapy and radiation.
Kombu: Kombu is rich in iodine, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, sodium, chromium, protein mannitol, phosphorus, alginate, fucodian, laminarin, mannitol sugar, carotene, phosphorus, germanium, phytohormones and vitamins A, C, D, E, K and the B complex vitamins. Treats thyroid disorders; regulates blood sugar; lowers blood pressure; reduces cholesterol; prevents arteriosclerosis; detoxifies body tissue of heavy metals and radioactive agents; purifies the blood; releives congestion, treats gynecological disorders; eases sore throat, stimulates collagen production; benefits the kidneys and is diuretic; thins the blood; treats fungal and yeast infection; eases lymphatic congestion; decreases edema; aids weight loss, aids constipation, promotes wound healing; aids arthritis; stimulates the immune system.
Kappaphycus: Red algae. It is one of the most important commercial sources of carrageenans. Farming methods affect the character of the carrageenan that can be extracted from the seaweed. It is affected by the disease ice-ice which severely reduces its yield.
Lambda Carrageen: A non-gelling variety of carrageen that assists in binding, retaining moisture and in contributing to viscosity in sweet doughs.
Laminaria Digitata: Sometimes also referred to as Atlantic kelp, Laminaria is used mainly in treatments against cellulite and obesity, either alone or combined with other extracts to enhance its activity.
Laver: An edible seaweed that has a high mineral salt content. It is used for making laverbread, a traditional Welsh dish. Common around the west coast of Britain and east coast of Ireland along the Irish Sea. Sometimes also known as “slake.” Also found, and eaten, in Japan (where it is called nori) and Korea (where it is called kim or gim).
Lessonia: Genus of kelp. Used in cosmetics as a bio-exfoliant.
Mozuku: A type of edible seaweed in the genus Cladosiphon, naturally found in Okinawa, Japan. Most is farmed by locals, and sold to processing factories. The main use is as food, and as source of one type of sulfated polysaccharide called Fucoidan to be used in cancer treatment aid health supplements.
Nori: Japanese name for various edible seaweed species of the Red. Highest in protein of all the seaweeds; rich in calcium, iodine, iron, phosphorus, potassium, manganese, porphyran, copper, zinc, and Vitamins A, B complex, C, E, & K. Inhibits tumors, softens and reduces nodules and fatty cysts, lowers cholesterol; eases painful and difficult urination, decreases swelling, lowers blood pressure, promotes cardiovascular health, strengthens circulation; protects the liver; prevents gall stones, treats bacterial and viral infections; prevents hair loss; treats goiter; eases sore throat; treats urinary infection.
Off-bottom Farming: Stake-and-line method, usually used for Spinosum and done on tidal flats.
Ogonori: A type of edible seaweed eaten along the coasts of Japan, Southeast Asia, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. Typically eaten cold and is a source of the thickener agar. Also called ogo or sea moss.
Polysaccharide: A type of biopolymer formed of repeating units joined together by glycosidic bonds. The structures are often linear but may find various degrees of branching. They may be amorphous or insoluble in water.
Porphyra: A foliose red algal genus of laver, comprising approximately 70 species.
Sea Fern: This seaweed is bright red. It grows up to 12 inches high and it is called the sea fern because it closely resembles a fern. The sea fern can be found in the Bering Sea, the Aleutian Islands and it can also be found in northern Oregon/Washington State.
Sea Grapes/Green Caviar: One of the favored species of edible Caulerpa due to its soft and succulent texture. Farmed in the Philippines and in Okinawa where the plant is eaten fresh.
Sea Lettuce: Green seaweed that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world’s oceans. A food source for humans in Scandinavia, Great Britain, Ireland, China, and Japan. Rich in protein, iron, calcium, manganese, potassium, silica, and Vitamins A, B, & C. Antiviral against influenza, used to treat gout, tuberculosis and intestinal worms; compress treatment for nosebleeds, migraine headaches, burns, cuts and sores.
Vegetative Reproduction: A form of asexual reproduction in plants. New individuals arrive without the production of seeds or spores, occurring naturally or induced.
Wakame: Sea-farmers have grown wakame for hundreds of years on the East and West Coast of the United States; England, Europe and Japan. One of the highest sources of calcium; rich in B complex vitamins, Vitamin A, C, & K. High in protein, iron, magnesium, iodine, sodium, chromium, zinc, phosphorus and potassium. Softens hardened tissue, inhibits tumors, detoxifies body tissues; eases cough, aids congestion, treats nicotine poisoning; lowers blood pressure, prevents arteriosclerosis, strengthens liver, purifies the blood (used after childbirth).
Zicai: Chinese name for various edible seaweed species of the Red seaweed called nori or laver.
Resource information courtesy of:
Seaweed Industry Association
by Valerie Gennari Cooksley, RN